No More Hiroshimas! -- No More Nagasakis!
In 1983, the Right Reverend William E. Swing organized a three-day symposium on nuclear weapons at Grace Cathedral, in San Francisco. Convinced he had to do something about the threat, Bishop Swing invited a group of influential acquaintances, similarly concerned, to meet monthly to address the threat. It was a distinguished group of civil servants, renowned scientists, and academics. Below are biographical sketches of the Founding Members of Voices and links to further information on each.
Dr. Sidney Drell, 1926-2016
From Remembering a Legend in Science and Public Affairs:
Dr. Sidney Drell, who passed away in Palo Alto, California, Wednesday at the age of 90, was not only a distinguished theoretical physicist but a charismatic leader of scientific and academic institutions, a pioneer in national intelligence, a world-renowned expert on nuclear arms control and nonproliferation, and a trusted advisor at the top levels of the federal government for over 50 years. I was also lucky enough to count him as a friend.
Dr. Drell, known to his many friends and colleagues as Sid, served for decades as Deputy Director and Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). He was the founding Co-Director of Stanford’s Center for International Security and Arms Control and one of the world’s most forceful advocates for reducing the dangers from nuclear weapons.
Sid was a member of the President’s Science Advisory Committee--the predecessor of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), which I currently lead--under Presidents Johnson and Nixon. He was also a member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Committee under President Clinton, a founding member of the JASON defense advisory group, and the chairman of technical panels for both the House Armed Services Committee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, among other high-level advisory roles.
His many honors include a MacArthur Foundation “Genius” award, the Heinz Prize for Public Policy, the Department of Energy’s Fermi Award, and the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal. In February of 2013, President Obama had the privilege of presenting Sid with the National Medal of Science, a ceremony Bishop Swing had the honor of witnessing.
Ambassador Thomas Graham, Jr
Ambassador Thomas Graham, Jr. is Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors of Lightbridge Corporation, a company that develops new and improved types of nuclear power fuel. He served for nearly three decades at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, including a decade and a half as general counsel, as well as Acting Director of the agency for most of 1993. In 1993, he led the effort to establish a long-term moratorium on the conduct of nuclear weapons tests. From 1994 to 1996, he was a principal figure in the worldwide effort to successfully support the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty negotiations.
In 1994, President Clinton appointed Thomas Graham as his special representative for arms control, non-proliferation and disarmament, with the rank of Ambassador. From 1993 to 1995, Ambassador Graham led the successful U.S. government effort to indefinitely extend the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. He served as a senior U.S. diplomat involved in every major international arms control and non-proliferation negotiation in which the United States took part during the period 1970-1997.
In December 2009, Ambassador Graham was appointed to the United Arab Emirates’ International Advisory Board, helping to guide that country’s nuclear energy program and hold it to the highest standards of safety, security, nonproliferation, transparency and sustainability.
He has taught at, among others, Stanford University, University of Virginia, Georgetown University, University of Washington and Oregon State University.
Source: Just Security
Ambassador James E. Goodby
James E. Goodby has served in the US Foreign Service, achieving the rank of Career Minister, and was appointed to five ambassadorial-rank positions by Presidents Carter, Reagan, and Clinton, including ambassador to Finland. He taught at Georgetown, Syracuse, and Carnegie Mellon Universities and is Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus at Carnegie Mellon. Ambassador Goodby has worked with former Secretary of State George Shultz, at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, where he has been a research fellow since 2007.
He was a Distinguished Service Professor at Carnegie Mellon University from 1989 to 1999 and is now a professor emeritus. Selected for the US Foreign Service through competitive examinations in 1952, Goodby rose to the rank of career minister in the Senior Foreign Service and was given five presidential appointments to ambassadorial rank, including ambassador to Finland (1980–81). During his Foreign Service career, he was involved as a negotiator or as a policy adviser in the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the negotiation of the limited nuclear test ban treaty, START, the Conference on Disarmament in Europe, and cooperative threat reduction (the Nunn-Lugar program).
Goodby is the author and editor of several books. His most recent publication is Deterrence: Its Past and Future—Papers Presented at Hoover Institution, November 2010 (Hoover Institution Press, 2011) edited with George P. Shultz and Sidney D. Drell. He also wrote At the Borderline of Armageddon: How American Presidents Managed the Atom Bomb (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006). With Sidney Drell, he wrote The Gravest Danger: Nuclear Weapons (Hoover Institution Press, 2003) and the essay A World without Nuclear Weapons: End-State Issues (Hoover Institution Press, 2009). Goodby coedited Reykjavik Revisited: Steps toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons (Hoover Institution Press, 2008) and contributed essays to Reykjavik Revisited and Implications of the Reykjavik Summit on Its Twentieth Anniversary (Hoover Institution Press, 2007).
Goodby’s awards include the Presidential Distinguished Service Award, the State Department’s Superior and Distinguished Honor Awards, and the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of Germany. He was named a Distinguished Fellow of the US Institute of Peace in 1992. He was the recipient of the inaugural Heinz Award in Public Policy in 1995. In 1996, he was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree by the Stetson University College of Law.
Source: Hoover Institution
Granoff is an attorney, author and international advocate, emphasizing the legal and ethical dimensions of human development and security, with a specific focus on advancing the rule of law to address international security and the threats posed by nuclear weapons. He serves on numerous governing and advisory boards including: Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy, Fortune Forum, Jane Goodall Institute, the NGO Committee on Disarmament, Peace and Security, Parliamentarians for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, and the Middle Powers Initiative. He is a recipient of the Rutgers University School of Law’s Arthur E. Armitage Distinguished Alumni Award and a 2014 nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize.
He is the Senior Advisor and United Nations Representative of the Permanent Secretariat of the World Summits of Nobel Peace Laureates, Ambassador for Peace, Security and Nuclear Disarmament of the Parliament of the World’s Religions, former Adjunct Professor of International Law at Widener University School of Law, and Chair of the Task Force on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Advisor to the Committee on National Security of the International Law Section of the American Bar Association.
Mr. Granoff is the award-winning screenwriter of The Constitution: The Document that Created a Nation and a prolific author. He has been a featured guest and expert commentator on numerous radio and television programs, and has presented expert testimony in the Parliaments of Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as the US Congress and the United Nations.
Mr. Granoff earned his BA (cum laude) from Vassar College and his Juris Doctorate from Rutgers University School of Law.
Source: Global Security Institute
William Perry, former Secretary of Defense
In a remarkable career that has spanned academia, industry, entrepreneurship, government, and diplomacy, Bill Perry has dealt firsthand with the changing nuclear threat.
Marked indelibly by the devastation in Japan he witnessed as a young sergeant in the Army of Occupation in the immediate aftermath of World War II, Perry chose a career in defense electronics that put him at the heart of top-secret Cold War reconnaissance of the growing Soviet nuclear forces, an imperative to deterrence and to constraining the already intense arms race.
Dr. Perry was one of the Silicon Valley’s early entrepreneurs, founding a company that pioneered digital technologies in the race to understand the Soviet nuclear missile arsenal.
Perry’s appointment as Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering in the late 1970s put him at the helm of crafting a defense strategy that would offset the Soviets’ numeric superiority in conventional forces, essential to shoring up and maintaining overall deterrence in a dangerous time. This new offset strategy ushered in the age of stealth, smart weapons, GPS, and sophisticated technologies and weaponry that changed the face of modern warfare and to this day is fundamental to the security of the United States.
As Secretary of Defense, Perry galvanized efforts to secure nuclear stockpiles (“loose nukes”) inherited by former Soviet states and presided over the dismantlement of more than 8,000 nuclear weapons. Since then he has unrelentingly practiced a unique form of diplomacy that blends his warm personal relationships with officials in many countries with optimism, unflagging energy, and incisive pragmatism in diplomatic initiatives focusing on the world’s most critical security hotspots, including North Korea, Iran, Russia, and China.
Perry serves on several government defense and science advisory panels, and is a board member of several companies developing new innovations in energy and medical technology. He is a husband, father of five, grandfather of eight, and a great-grandfather of two. He continues to travel the world in pursuit of his goal to eliminate the danger of nuclear weapons.
George Schultz, former U.S. Secretary of State
George Pratt Shultz has had a distinguished career in government, in academia, and in the world of business. He is one of two individuals who has held four different federal cabinet posts; he has taught at three of this country’s great universities; and for eight years, he was president of a major engineering and construction company.
Shultz was born in New York City on December 13, 1920, and grew up in Englewood, New Jersey. He attended Princeton University, graduating in 1942 with a BA in economics. Shortly after graduation, he enlisted in the US Marine Corps and served through 1945. He then resumed his studies, this time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he earned a PhD in industrial economics in 1949. From 1948 to 1957 he taught at MIT, taking a leave of absence in 1955 to serve as a senior staff economist on President Eisenhower’s Council of Economic Advisers.
Shultz held two key positions in the Reagan administration: Chairman of the President’s Economic Policy Advisory Board (1981–82) and Secretary of State (1982–89). As Secretary of State, he played a key role in implementing a foreign policy that led to the successful conclusion of the Cold War and the development of strong relationships between the United States and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, including China, Japan, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
In January 1989, Shultz was awarded the Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor. He is also a recipient of the Seoul Peace Prize (1992), the West Point Sylvanus Thayer Award (1992), the Eisenhower Medal for Leadership and Service (2001), the Reagan Distinguished American Award (2002), and the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training’s Ralph Bunche Award for Diplomatic Excellence (2002). Other honors awarded in 2002 include the Elliot Richardson Prize for Excellence and Integrity in Public Service, the James H. Doolittle Award, and the John Witherspoon Medal for Distinguished Statesmanship. The George Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center in Arlington, Virginia, was dedicated in a ceremony on May 29, 2002. Shultz was named a distinguished fellow of the American Economic Association in 2005 and received the American Spirit Award from the National World War II Museum in 2006. In 2007, he received the George Marshall Award from the United States Agency for International Development and the Truman Medal for Economic Policy. He received the Rumford Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008 and the Commandant’s Leadership Award from the Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation in 2009. In 2011, he received the Congressional Medal of Honor Society’s Distinguished Citizen Award and the first Economic Club of New York Award for Leadership Excellence. In 2012, he was presented with a Democracy Service Medal by the National Endowment for Democracy and received the Henry A. Kissinger Prize at the American Academy in Berlin. The Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation dedicated the Global Issues and Reagan-Gorbachev Summits Galleries in his honor in June 2012.
The Rt. Rev. William E. Swing
William E. Swing, 7th Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of California (1980-2006), was born in Huntington, West Virginia. He graduated from Kenyon College and Virginia Theological Seminary, and holds six honorary degrees. Bishop Swing served as a priest in Wheeling, Weirton, and Chester, West Virginia. He also started a church at Waterford Park Race Track in Chester, pioneered homeless work in San Francisco, and played a critical role in saving St. Luke’s Hospital. He served on the Board of the American Foundation for AIDS research for 20 years and has spoken throughout the world. He was instrumental in starting a capital development bank in Oakland. He is known as an outspoken leader about the standing of gays and lesbians in the church. He led the radical expansion of the Bishop’s Ranch in Healdsburg, California. Bishop Swing is the Founder and President of the United Religions Initiative (URI) (2000-present), an international NGO working to promote interfaith cooperation. He is married to Mary Taylor Swing and has two children and three grandchildren.
Bishop Swing is an inspirational speaker and an author, most recently of A Bishop's Quest: Founding a United Religions and The Sacred and the Silly: A Bishop's Playful and Eventful Life. Both books are available on Amazon.com; the proceeds of book sales will benefit URI.
Source: United Religions Initiative
Monica Willard is the main United Religions Initiative (URI) Representative to the United Nations and coordinates the team of URI representatives to the UN. She has worked with the UN Department of Public Information (DPI) on the annual Student Observance for the International Day of Peace at UN Headquarters since 1997. She was a founding member of the International Day of Peace NGO Committee at the UN in 2002 and is currently serving as Co-Chair. As President of the Committee of Religious NGOs at the UN (2010-2013), she organized programs for World Interfaith Harmony Week, including two held in the UN General Assembly. She was a founding member of the Tripartite Forum, a group of UN member states, UN agencies, and religious NGOs who worked together from 2005 to 2010 to promote cooperation within the UN system on religion, peace and development. Monica served as Chair of the 49th Annual DPI/NGO Conference at the United Nations. Her honors include the Spirit of the UN Award and the Chapel of the Four Chaplains Award.